Ncharacteristics of bantu languages pdf

They include all of the major bantu languages of south africa, botswana, lesotho, swaziland, and mozambique, with outliers such as lozi in zambia and namibia, and ngoni in. Scholars of bantu languages have long posited a common protobantu pb source from which modernday bantu languages have evolved. Tanzanian newspapers newspapers in bantu languages on the web. Bantu languages definition bantu languages are a subset of nigercongo languages mostly spoken in the center and south part of africa english oxford living dictionary, n. List of bantu language names in order by guthrie number. From a comparative perspective, it is in fact the medial. It is estimated that there are more than 500 bantu languages spoken in subsaharan africa, making this one of the largest and most widespread language groupings in the world. Bantu languages article about bantu languages by the. The southern bantu languages are a large group of bantu languages, largely validated in janson 199192. Pagibete c401 reeder 1998, tend to favour final markers. Introduction studies of the noun in bantu languages have traditionally concentrated on the morphology of the noun with its elaborate class. They are nearly synonymous with guthries bantu zone s, apart from the exclusion of shona and the inclusion of makhuwa. The bantu languages are spoken in a very large area, including most of africa from southern cameroon eastward to kenya and southward to the southernmost tip of the continent.

A note on bantu education 19531970 south african journal of economics, march 2009. This database contains 4,254 lexical items from 10 bantu languages. Genetics, archaeology and linguistics all point to the extensive distribution of this language family being the result of a population dispersal that began around 30005000 years ago 24. New developments in the classification of bantu languages and. Guthrie, the classification of the bantu languages 1948, repr. The bantu languages, from the nigercongo language family, blend with arabic, creating a new language called swahili which become a widely spoken language among the peoples of east africa. Bantu languages, a group of some 500 languages belonging to the bantoid subgroup of the benuecongo branch of the nigercongo language family. Southern bantu languages simple english wikipedia, the. Some languages have limited syllabic nasals and coda syllable. The word bantu is used to attribute around 300 to 600 african people who speak bantu language. Over 500 languages are classified in this family, including swahili, xhosa, and zulu. The greater part of africa south of the equator possesses but one linguistic family so far as its native inhabitants are concerned.

The word bantu means the people and is made up of the stem ntu person and the plural prefix ba. New developments in the classification of bantu languages. A survey report for the bantu languages by derek nurse cartographer. The bantu languages are a very large group, belonging to the benuecongo family of the nigercongo phylum, which comprises between 250 to 500 members spread over most of subsaharan africa. In most current bantu languages the phonologically marked tone is synchronically h, so the main question is whether the underlying contrast is one of h vs. Proceedings of the royal society of biological sciences 279.

Bantu words in american english terms you should know for week 11 part 02 are. Providing descriptive and typological information about the bantu languages of southern africa, this volume brings together a set of expert contributors and is divided into two parts. The 250 or so narrow bantu languages are conventionally divided up into geographic zones first proposed by malcolm guthrie 19671971. It is the product of extensive study by the authors and participants in field methods and group study courses at the university of california. There are about 520 languages in the bantu family, 670 languages in the southern bantoid branch which includes bantu, and 1,532 in nigercongo. The southern bantu languages, however, are also a valid linguistic group the southern bantu languages are a group of languages in. All nouns are assigned to a noun class, where the number of noun classes varies between 12 and 20. Computational modeling of bantu natural language from very early studies of bantu languages that. The migration of the protobantu language group started around 3000 years ago. Bantu words in american english montclair state university. The name was coined to represent the word for people in loosely reconstructed protobantu, from the plural noun class prefix bacategorizing.

Although these sounds are less frequent in bantu languages, they do occur in northwest bantu as well as in east bantu, both on the northeastern coast and in the southeast maddieson 2003. Talking about the bantu language, there are around 650 languages. The bantu languages descend from a common protobantu language, which is believed to have been spoken in what is now cameroon in central africa. Mwenyi k352 yukawa 1987b, use a high amount of initial markers, while languages of the northwest and central north, e. Bantu languages are spoken largely east and south of the present day country of cameroon. English to xhosa translation page a website that translated words and phrases to and from xhosa by martha r. Middle passage bantu languages slang black english africanamerican vernacular english play the dozens. A note on bantu extensions and syntactic word formation. Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmasters page for free fun content. The bantu language with the largest total number of speakers is swahili. Hyman, larry m tukumu, simon nsielanga, sj abstract.

If you want to know the history of bantu people, you have to check facts about bantu. Introduction studies of the noun in bantu languages have traditionally concentrated on the morphology of the noun with its elaborate class system and the underlying semantic strands. A comparative grammar of the south african bantu languages. Each word must end in a vowel though in some modern dialects in eastern equatorial, west and south africa the terminal vowel may be elided in rapid pronunciation, or be dropped, or absorbed in the terminal consonant, generally a nasal. Cultural phylogeography of the bantu languages of sub.

Bantu languages, or narrow bantu languages, are a family of 522 nigercongo languages in subsaharan africa. Swahili, which is spoken by five million people as a mother tongue and some 30 million as a second language, is a bantu lingua franca important in both commerce and literature. A note on bantu extensions and syntactic word formation jochen zeller, university of kwazulunatal, durban. The principal writers are daniel van lehman and omar eno. Cultural phylogeography of the bantu languages of subsaharan. Each word must end in a vowel though in some mod ern dialects in eastern equatorial, west and south africa the ter minal vowel may be elided in rapid pronunciation, or be dropped, or absorbed in the terminal. Thus, a comparison of the acquisition of bantu languages offers an extremely rich area for research, providing insights not only into how language is learned, but also into the possible impact that language learning may exert on processes of historical change. Bantu education act, 1953 1 bantu education act, 1953 bantu education act, 1953 act to provide for the transfer of the administration and control of native education from the several provincial administrations to the government of the union, and for matters incidental thereto. The somali bantu iii preface this booklet is a basic introduction to the people, history, and cultures of the somali bantu.

Scholars of bantu languages have long posited a common proto bantu pb source from which modernday bantu languages have evolved. Nigercongo, voltacongo, benuecongo, eastern benuecongo, south bantoid, bantu. Introduction verb stems in bantu languages may include a number of derivational suffixes called extensions that express various functions, such as causative, applicative, reciprocal or passive. Each word must end in a vowel though in some modern dialects in eastern equatorial, west and south africa the terminal vowel may be elided in rapid pronunciation, or be dropped, or absorbed in the terminal. These words correspond to basic items of vocabulary, such as simple verbs like to hear, or to.

They are spoken by nearly onethird of the population of the continent, approximately 330 million people. An estimated 2,5003,000 years ago bc to 500 bc, although other sources put the start of the bantu expansion closer to 3000 bc, speakers of the protobantu language began a series of migrations eastward and southward, carrying. According to the most recent estimate grimes 2000 the world has 6,809 languages, of which 2,058, approximately 30%, are spoken in africa an additional 44 are described as extinct. One bantu language, swahili, is used as a lingua franca in east africa by about 50 to 100 million people. A comparative study of the bantu and semibantu languages by johnston, harry hamilton, sir, 18581927. A comparative grammar of the south african bantu languages comprising those of zanzibar, mozambique, the zambesi, kafirland, benguela, angola, the congo, the ogowe, the cameroons, the lake region, etc by torrend, j. African linguists have a poor record in distinguishing typological. Bantu contains hundreds of languages that are spoken by 120 million africans in the congo basin, angola, the republic of south africa, mozambique, zimbabwe, zambia, malawi, tanzania, and kenya. Meeussen 1967 was particularly instrumental in reconstructing what is thought to be the noun class system of proto bantu see also guthrie 196771 and welmers 1973.

A comparative grammar of the south african bantu languages comprising those of zanzibar, mozambique, the zambesi, kafirland, benguela, angola, the congo, the ogowe, the cameroons, the lake region, etc. These were assigned letters as and divided into decades groups a10, a20, etc. This clearlymarked division of human speech has been entitled the bantu, a name invented by dr w. The somali bantu lutheran family services rocky mountains. Irene tucker sil international 2001 contents on classifying bantu languages general referential classifications historical classifications appendix the bantu languages of africa the bantu languages of africanorthwestern area references on classifying bantu languages. View bantu linguistics research papers on academia. Bleek, and it is, on the whole, the fittest general term with which to designate the most. Medial markers are used by the large majority of bantu languages. It is designed primarily for service providers and others assisting somali bantu refugees in their new communities in the united states. Bantu languages simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The migration of the proto bantu language group started around 3000 years ago. Media in category bantu languages the following 24 files are in this category, out of 24 total. The acquisition of bantu languages katherine demuth brown.

Students of bantu languages have a great deal of material to work with, since the family is so large and speakers are widely scattered across africa. Swati kunene 1979 studied the acquisition of swati nominal morphology, focusing on noun class prefixes and nominal agreement possessives and demonstratives. Intensive chichewa pdf files a 1969 grammar published by likuni press of malawi distributed for noncommercial use only. Apr 27, 2020 the bantu languages are a large family of languages spoken primarily in the southern part of africa. The bantu languages or narrow bantu languages are a branch of the nigercongo languages.

You can find most of them living around southern africa, central africa and african great lakes region. The timne and cognate languages of sierra leone and the north guinea coast use pronominal prefixes and a system of concord, the employment of the latter being precisely similar to the same practice in the bantu languages. Congobrazzaville national languages online dictionary, bantu web site. Irene tucker sil international 2001 contents on classifying bantu languages general referential classifications historical classifications appendix the bantu languages of africa the bantu languages of africanorthwestern area references on classifying bantu languages general.

They moved eastward to the area between central africa and west africa. A brief summary of the bantu acquisition literature by language is provided below. This publication presents the first documentation of nzadi, a bantu language spoken by fishermen along the kasai river in the democratic republic of congo drc. Bringing together linguistic and genetic evidence to test the bantu expansion. Genetics, archaeology and linguistics all point to the extensive distribution of this language family being the result of a population dispersal that began around 3000. Bantu language article about bantu language by the free.

The linear ordering of tamneg markers in the bantu. Twelve bantu languages are spoken by more than five million people, including rundi, rwanda, shona, xhosa, and zulu. The southern bantu languages, however, are also a valid linguistic group. A comparative study of the bantu and semibantu languages. The southern bantu languages, also known as bantu zone s, are a group of languages in the bantu language family. Bantu languages root, prefix, prefixes, vowel and language. The definition of the bantu cornes from a variety of sources, most. Bantu languages, group of african languages forming a subdivision of the benueniger division of the nigercongo branch of the nigerkordofanian language family see african languages. Bantu language is a crossword puzzle clue that we have spotted over 20 times. Guthries divisions of the bantu languages were based on geography, not on language characteristics. The bantu languages are a large family of languages spoken primarily in the southern part of africa. The similarity between dispersed bantu languages had been observed as early as in the 17th century. Meeussen 1967 was particularly instrumental in reconstructing what is thought to be the noun class system of protobantu see also guthrie 196771 and welmers 1973.

Our basic observation is that bantu languages have few genuine quantifiers. The linear ordering of tamneg markers in the bantu languages. Bantu languages still widely used even by those who dissent strongly fiom his methods and conclusions. The bantu languages are attractive to the explorer not only from the harmonious adjustment of vowels and consonants, but from the logic of their grammatical structure, which, in the majority of these tongues, provides for a wide range and a nice. Bantu languages simple english wikipedia, the free. Parts of the bantu area include languages from other language families see map. Publication date 19191922 topics bantu languages publisher oxford, clarendon press. To appear in the oxford guide to the bantu languages. Southern bantu languages simple english wikipedia, the free.

Jul 07, 20 it is estimated that there are more than 500 bantu languages spoken in subsaharan africa, making this one of the largest and most widespread language groupings in the world. Each language in our database has around 430 words associated with it. Guthrie classification of bantu languages wikipedia. Sesotho sa leboa english online northern sotho english dictionary pukuntsu ya sesotho sa leboa seisimane. It is probably the origin of rap and has its own origin in the. Other major languages of the group, each with 10 million speakers or more, are rwanda, luba, nyanja, shona, and zulu.

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